Thursday, May 31, 2007

Deterministic Disquiet

Determinism seems to be the belief that all human traits are biological and all human actions nothing more than mechanical responses to stimuli.

Mark Twain wrote about determinism in a short story called, "What is Man?"

I find something lacking in this idea but it is very difficult to express. When Lilly Tomlin said, "Accountants know the cost of everything but the value of nothing," she came close to expressing the flavor of my opposition to determinism.

I know it is childish to refuse to believe something because I find it objectionable, so that places me in a state of disharmony.

I accept that environment contributes greatly to a person's character. Those raised in Tibetan monasteries will turn out differently than those raised in jihadist enclaves. Those taught that it is wrong to kill and steal will turn out differently than those taught that it is the key to unlock a heavenly harem.

I accept that hereditary makeup contributes greatly to your opportunities and limitations. Those born severely disabled will not achieve athletic renown. Those born mentally disabled will not achieve cognitive renown.

Since training seems to influence behavior, bringing out valor in soldiers and inflaming cruelty in the practitioners of fundamentalist religions, then it seems possible to assert that your ethical makeup can be influenced. Since a man will act as he believes, then it seems possible to assert that your actions can be molded.

But how are emotions explained?

If I am stirred by a work of art while another is not, or I am awed by a landscape which another finds uninteresting is that wholly a matter of training and exposure? Is hope a wholly biological response?

What makes determinism so hard to address is that it makes the argument I am who I am because I had the biological and environmental experiences that I have had. That if I had had other traits or trips I would be different.

I can not escape my nature or trade my skin for another to test these claims can I?

And if I could would not the claims of determinism follow me still?

I cannot exist outside of my own experiences and neither can anyone else.

Therefore it seems determinism is a vexing opinion, but not a theory which can satisfy the falsifiability principle.

My desire to be more virtuous motivates a lot of my thoughts at present, and I find determinism an interesting way to think about the world and I hope that reflection upon its premises will train me to be more forgiving of other people's faults (I am sufficiently gracious with regard to mine own faults).

Why do we seem to instinctively distrust and dislike anyone that is seen as too calculating and insincere.

If determinism is true then there is no such thing as sincere or insincere since we are not capable of behaving in any way other than that which we have, do, or will behave.

In other words we could say that Hillary Clinton and Newt Gingrich are non-sincere people. We could say that a suicide bomber is non-sincere or a child that brings a flower for his mother is non-sincere.

Something tells me that this is false yet I cannot convince even myself that it is such.

There seems to me to be more to a person than a lamp-post. We experience we evaluate we feel. We disappoint ourselves and sometimes we redeem ourselves. We fall in love and hurt ourselves, and then we fall in love again. We are attracted by beauty. We desire to be happy and to avoid suffering.

Don't we?

Aren't there more to emotions than meets the I?

Tuesday, May 29, 2007

216 and 38

216 and 38 are important numbers, reflecting as they do the level of democratic House and Senate hypocrisy on the issue of Iraq (respectively).

In this excellent post David Sirota discusses what weakness looks like to the American people:

Let us count the ways...

In the last election cycle Americans looked at Iraq and viewed the election of Republican candidates as an obstacle to a solution to that problem. They then removed Republicans from office in race after race after race.

With the curtain drawn aside and the rug pulled out to boot what happens next?

Will Republican blowback turn into incumbent blowback?

Disease and class

Doctors like Paul Farmer have been saying for years that a selfish reason to see to it that the poor have access to a decent standard of living and medical care is that disease does not respect class boundaries.

This epidemic in Chicago seems to show the arguments' validity:

MRSA on the march

Here is a disease that got it's start, or found an ideal launching pad, in an over-crowded prison.

Because we didn't care about the prisoners conditions, the disease spread among the prisoners.

Because 350 prisoners a day are released to poor neighborhoods, the disease found a new launching pad among the Chicago poor.

Because we didn't care about the living conditions of the poor, the disease spread among the poor.

Because the poor intermingle with the rich, at least as far as cleaning their homes, doing their laundry and other "remedial" tasks are concerned, the disease will likely spread among the rich.

Will anyone care then?

This is just another good argument in favor of universal health care, but one that even the most selfish, heard-hearted, individual can agree with if possessed with a sense of self-preservation.

I am reminded of the adage, "Whatsoever you do to the least of your brothers, that you do unto you."

I fear we are living in an age of consequences.

ADDENDUM: Michael Moore has a new movie out called Sicko which highlights the inefficiencies of our current health care system. You can see his first live interview in 2.5 years below:

Sicko out soon

Friday, May 25, 2007


This morning I was walking through a park/cemetery near my home. Early cemeteries were often made for both the living and the dead and my walk was enjoyable.

As I was walking I looked up at an impressive maple tree in the morning light. It's leaves were bright (spring) green and as I was gazing at it my mind wandered...

When light strikes an object, such as a leaf, what we see is the light which was not absorbed by the object. In the case of our friend the leaf, this means red and blue wavelengths are absorbed by the leaf and green is reflected to my eyes.

That is simple enough and I've known that for a long time, but this morning it struck me that if there was any color this leaf existed as in reality, it most definitely is not green. In actuality it should be a shade of magenta (a color defined by it's absence of green).

If you want a better sense of what I am talking about, think of a photographic negative.

I am still curious about what happens when light is absorbed by an object, and why reflection of a particular wavelength happens at all. It seems like it could be similar to the way two magnets can be made to attract or repel each other depending upon their polarity alignment.

However, back to my wandering...

There are some colors of particular interest. Black is black because it absorbs all wavelengths of light. White is white because it reflects all wavelengths of light.

In other words, black is white and white is no color at all.

Poetically it seems fitting that the whitehouse is a place where light does not enter.

But, stars would be pin-points of blackness in an otherwise bright white sky.

Black holes are white holes.

Black people are white and white people are black.

Nothing is as it appears and I've been looking at the world all wrong.

This little light of mine seems to be emitting darkness.

Spooky thoughts for a cemetery stroll.

Thursday, May 24, 2007

Re: Yesterday's post

Yesterday it seemed clear to me that the democratic calculus regarding the betrayal of their mandate to end the war in Iraq was a clarion call to ridicule.

Americans across the nation have been obliging this call, and none louder or better than MSNBC's Keith Olbermann:

You call that leadership?

What are Americans to think of our state of affairs when those we worked hard for and had such hope for betrayed that work and that vision in less than one year and after a single test of their will?

What are our troops to think of our state of affairs when they give and give and give and Washingtonians vacillate and vacillate and vacillate in the face of back door drafts, secondary surges, and rapidly expanding chaos in Iraq?

When lives and blood are on the line it is doubly immoral to knowingly pursue what is clearly the wrong course. This applies to republican and democratic legislators alike. Each delay of one day means 3 more American GIs killed (on average), and an uncounted number of Iraqis killed.

I, like Keith, cannot imagine these elected representatives will be warmly received in their home districts over Memorial Day weekend. I hope San Francisco in particular spares no tar or feathers for Ms. Pelosi.

Wednesday, May 23, 2007


Currently the democratic party is having a fight. Unlike fights in hockey where the outcome is usually a minor injury to a single person, this fight has grave consequences for our soldiers currently in Iraq or in transition to Iraq.

On one side of this fight are the democratic legislators that think fighting means asking, "How high?" when the president says, "Jump!".

On the other side of this fight are the democratic legislators that wish to check the president's power and begin ending this war in Iraq sooner rather than later.

Conventional wisdom says the American people strongly support the second group of legislators because they are sick and tired of being mired in a Nixonian quagmire and being led by a "meatball mind".

Senator Russ Feingold falls squarely in the second camp and is trying to challenge the first camp to "cowboy up" as people of western persuasion like to say:

Russ's statment

I, myself, fall in the second camp. I believe that republican legislators want to game the war and postpone it enough, say to the fall of 2008, to make the reality of our failure there apparent only after the next election cycle.

I know that sounds cynical of me, but it's not like the very same thing hasn't been done before (specifically on the advice of Henry Kissenger to Richard Millhouse Nixon).

Here is an excerpt from Robert Dallek's new book, Nixon and Kissinger: Partner's in Power:

"Nixon wanted to plan the removal of all US troops by the end of 1971, but Henry cautioned that if North Vietnam then destabilized Saigon in 1972, it could have an adverse effect on the president's re-election. He recommended a pullout in the fall of 1972, "so that if any bad results follow they will be too late to affect the election." He had nothing to say about the American lives that would be lost in the service of Nixon's reelection."

Christopher Hitchens, that prince of politeness, that man of reserved manner, has this to say about Robert's new book:

Partners in

ADDENDUM: While Group 1 democratic legislators are busily trying to frame their timidity as a courageous moral victory, a Google news search of the words "democrats cave timetable" seems to provide an insurmountable counter-argument to that theme. Another blow to that marketing campaign would be to mention that the whitehouse is characterizing this new democratic approach as a "victory" that gives them "what we've wanted all along"

Does the democratic leadership feel the American people want to see more of the same?

Do they feel the best way to make a fool of a fool is to let him have his way? If so, the potential for education seems exhausted with respect to Mr. Bush.

I think democratic leadership underestimates the patience of the American people in the face of American blood spilling unjustly.

Tuesday, May 22, 2007

Open letter to Republicans

Scrap the field of candidates that you have running for president and convince William Sebastian Cohen to run. He's smart, unlike McCain or Lieberman he's truly bipartisan, and he has a strong track record with national defense.

He's also good on T.V. and is socially progressive enough to support the E.R.A., which could bring the Republican Party out of the 1800s and into the 1900s.

I think he would salvage a little dignity for true conservatives who've had to bear a big-government, borrow and spend, secretive...oh I could go on.

Bill Cohen '08
A better man and a better way forward.


Monday, May 21, 2007

A confession

I believe that global warming is real. I believe this because Venus is further from the sun than Mercury, but is hotter due to what science calls "Run away global warming."


When I went out car shopping recently I didn't buy a hybrid vehicle. In fact, once I found out that all they came in were automatic transmissions, I didn't even test-drive one.

In my defense I live in a rugged climate and standard transmissions are superior in snow.

But, that wasn't what anchored my purchasing choice.

It was all about the turning, and the speed, and the look, and the feel, and the power.

How can one aware of global warming and it's causes be so selfish as to indulge in a terrestrial rocket?

Perhaps, through our car, we project our identity and I am too insecure to drive a glorified golf-cart and feel good inside.

I ask for forgiveness from future generations who will no doubt pay a heavy price for choices like mine.

It is always easier to confront someone else's moral shortcomings. When confronting my own I desperately try to make excuses for myself, "But it's a near-zero emission vehicle!", "You don't drive that much!", "The gas mileage is actually pretty good!", "Those hybrids have batteries that will probably wind up in some land fill!"...

All self-deception.

I was selfish and I am sure future generations will find my selfishness appalling, coming as it does at their expense.

Lucky for me I know there is no pleasure like a guilty pleasure and I know a nice lake road in the country where I can indulge it.


Wednesday, May 16, 2007

Life imitates Art

"But the Emperor has nothing at all on!", said a little child.

"Listen to the voice of innocence!", exclaimed his father; and what the child has said was whispered from one to another.

"But he has nothing at all on!", at last cried out all the people. The Emperor was vexed, for he knew that the people were right; but he thought the procession must continue it's course! And the lords of the bedchamber took greater pains than ever, to appear holding up a trian, although, in reality, there was no train to hold."

Sharpton vs Hitchens

You may have heard about the Al Sharpton vs Christopher Hitchens debate due to Al's derogatory remarks towards Mitt Romney.

But if you haven't seen the debate you are missing out on one of the better defenses of God that I have seen.

What makes Al's case so strong?

He refuses to defend the Bible or the Koran or any other denominational dogma, but rather posits what I call the Morality from Design argument:

Smackdown on Slate

I suspect Al knows that making the claim "God is not great" is a curious claim for an atheist to make (supposing as it does God's existence), and is too good a lawyer to get off a bone with meat like that on it.

Christopher Hitchens does assault religion with gusto and style, but he never did address Al's main thrust and so I give the edge to Al Sharpton.

I think that Socrates addressed Dr. Sharpton's argument in Euthyphro, or at least could provide Dr. Sharpton with a good puzzle to sort out.

His analysis went something like this:

Does God approve of my actions because they are good, or are my actions good because God approves of them?

If my actions are good only because God approves of them, then good is entirely arbitrary, depending upon the whims of God.

If, on the other hand, God approves of my actions because they are intrinsically good, then there must be some divine source of values which we might come to know independently of God.

See what you think of the debate. I enjoyed it.

I'll add one final thought. I feel that Bill Clinton is at his best when being attacked, for instance by Amy Goodman, because it is a chance for him to expose his value judgements and they are usually sound. I feel that Al Sharpton, and perhaps religious leaders in general, grow in my esteem when speaking frankly about their sprirituality rather than their "denominational dogma" (i.e. religious habits).

See what you think.

Tuesday, May 15, 2007

Falwell falls

Conventional wisdom says you should never speak ill of the dead and as of today that includes Jerry Falwell.

Details here

Here are some of his quotes to mark his passing:

"AIDS is not just God's punishment for homosexuals; it is God's punishment for the society that tolerates homosexuals."

"Homosexuality is Satan's diabolical attack upon the family that will not only have a corrupting influence upon our next generation, but it will also bring down the wrath of God upon America."

"Billy Graham is the chief servant of Satan in America."

"Scientology has a terrible track record of bigotry."

"I think the Moslem faith teaches hate."

"If you're not a born-again Christian, you're a failure as a human being."

"There's been a concerted effort to steal Christmas."

Shortly after 9/11 on the 700 club he had this to say:

"I really believe that the pagans, and the abortionists, and the feminists, and the gays and the lesbians who are actively trying to make that an alternative lifestyle, the ACLU, People For the American Way, all of them who have tried to secularize America. I point the finger in their face and say 'you helped this happen.'"

It seems that sometimes misfortune befalls the wholly virtuous.

Juxtaposition Disorder

On January 27, 2005 president Bush was asked if the United States would pull it's troops out of Iraq if requested to do so by the duly, newly elected government. His response was, "Absolutely. This is a sovereign government. They're on their feet."

Source: New York Times, Jan 28, 2005

On May 10, 2007 "A majority of members of Iraq's parliament have signed a draft bill that would require a timetable for the withdrawal of U.S. soldiers from Iraq and freeze current troop levels."

Source: Washington Post, May 11, 2007

Is it likely president Bush will keep his word if this bill becomes law?

For McCain's take on this issue see this commentary by Arianna Huffington.

Monday, May 14, 2007

The Jamaican Threat

While "rogue state" Jamaica does not have the potential to hit Europe with nuclear warheads yet, the US State Department has begun proceeding with plans to deploy elements of an anti-ballistic missile defense system in Antillean nations in preparation for the inevitable confrontation.

Exchange the word Iran for the word Jamaica above and you have real news.

I am not sure it is much more realistic.

The reality of war

Most people killed in war are civilian women and children.

Iraq is no exception.

Infant mortality rate in Iraq rises 125%

Sunday, May 13, 2007


When I throw a javelin it has a front (point) a middle (shaft) and an end (the feathered bit).

Does the same hold true for light? When I shine a flashlight, for instance, and then turn it off, is there a beginning and a middle and an end similar to the javelin?

What happens when this light hits a wall? It doesn't go through the wall, but does the middle and the end collapse into the beginning in a type of wave-canceling erasure?

I know what happens when a javelin hits a wall.

Imagine I am outside with my flashlight and I shine it "straight up". Suppose that a beam of light does have a beginning, middle, and end. Let's call it a light javelin. As I understand it, the mass in our universe will eventually warp our javelin so that it orbits our galaxy at some point.

Is this what cosmic background radiation is?

What happens when two light javelins collide? Can a light quanta, or photon, from one javelin be dislodged by another and sent ricocheting off in another direction?

Are these neutrinos?

I think I'm going to look at the intersection of two flashlights and see what it looks like.

Friday, May 11, 2007

The pot calls the kettle black

Now that Iraq is viewed as a quackmire by most observers, the people that beat the drums of war loudest are starting to turn on each other.

Here is a letter to the editor of the Washington Post by Richard Perle entitled:

How the CIA failed America

After reading his letter it is worth recalling some of the gems uttered by Richard Perle:

"A year from now, I'll be very surprised if there is not some grand square in Baghdad that is named after President Bush."

"If we just let our vision of the world go forth, and we embrace it entirely, and we don't try to piece together clever diplomacy but just wage a total war, our children will sing great songs about us years from now."

"There is no doubt that, with the exception of a very small number of people close to a vicious regime, the people of Iraq have been liberated and they understand that they've been liberated. "

"I've known Ahmed Chelabi for more than a dozen years. He is a man, in my experience, of absolute integrity and courage, and he would be a great Iraqi leader."

"If Iraq turns out to be the success I'm confident it will be, I think others in the region will look at Iraq and say, Why can't we rid ourselves of a regime that's rather similar in some ways to the Iraqi regime? So the precedential effect of liberating Iraq may assist in bringing about democratic reform elsewhere."

Without this context you might consider Richard Perle a blameless victim after reading his letter. With context you might realize there is plenty of blame to go around for this costly mistake.

Primarily the blame seems to be the firmly held notion that external societies can be redesigned with warfare to suit our ends, and that ghastly means justify those ends. A lot of over-confidence in one's own opinion also seems to have played a role. I suppose one should not discount a lack of sympathy for the suffering of others.

As ugly as the past few years have been, the back-biting, legacy-inflating, egotistical lashings of the Bush administration officials towards each other shall undoubtedly surpass them.

Thursday, May 10, 2007

Sony Reader

Here are some more comments on my Sony Portable Reader System (PRS-500).

1. There must be a law which says, the more careful you are with something the more likely you are to drop it. Having satisfied this law I can now say that a reader dropped from table height does not appear to suffer any damage.

2. The naming scheme for purchased books is a hodge-podge of letters and number like, cbuscerhi0014p0j.lrx, rather than "My Life.lrx". I find this matters when trying to confirm if a backup was successful.

3. The computer-based Connect Reader software has a lovely search capability built-in. It is very fast and works well. While I don't feel the need for that on my device, I must admit it is nice to search the book on my computer.


Once you search for and find what you are looking for you may select text but cannot then do anything with it if said text is in a "Secure BBeB book".

My expectation is that I should be able to copy the text out of the book I paid for and paste it to the clipboard complete with properly formatted citation.

Why else allow me to select the text?

Why else allow me to search?

Without this I imagine the reader is a lot less attractive to students.

4. People that are far-sighted really love demonstrations of scalable fonts.

I am finding that the more I use my reader the more I like it. I think that if Sony can drop their desire to rule the world and instead manage to hear what their customer's want the device will continue to grow in popularity.

Cosmoes Too

This new book about Einstein has got me thinking once again about the universe.

Einstein's theory of relativity predicted that gravity would affect light and make it bend. The theory was confirmed with observation during a solar eclipse.

That brings up two questions to my mind:

1. Does light have mass since gravity affects it?

2. If light will bend, then theoretically it ought to be possible to:

a. Make it orbit

b. Catapult it around a massive body and increase it's speed as is done with satellite launches. This would mean light ought to be able to travel at speeds faster than the speed of light.

Tuesday, May 08, 2007

A simple fact

Since February 1st, 2007 - the date of our troop surge began, the US casualty rate has surged to 3.25 per day.

This has happened right under the careful watch of a newly elected democratic Congress with a mandate to change the course.

I am getting impatient and I am not alone.


I've been reading Einstein: His life and Universe by Walter Isaacson and have arrived at a section on general relativity.

As I understand it the theory of general relativity predicts that the amount of matter in our universe causes space and time to curve back in on itself and our universe can be thought of as existing on the surface of an expanding balloon.

As I thought about that I wondered if it were possible that our universe were inside a black hole, and if other black holes were universes that we are on the outside of.

It is interesting to me that a black hole is known to form after a super novae, which means there is a mighty big bang.

As I understand it matter comes from stars too.

I haven't got the math skills to investigate the idea, or the background to know if this is an absurd idea, yet isn't it lovely to consider such questions even for a moment?

It is said that not even light can escape a black hole. This is because the gravitational mass bends it back on itself is it not?

Could it be...

Monday, May 07, 2007

Sugar-coated caskets?

On May 6th, 2007 (Sunday) 12 US soldiers were killed.

This means there have been 25 US soldiers killed in the first 7 days of May.

Does that sound like success to you?

How about the death of 20 Iraqis trying to shop at a market?

It seems to me that all the killing is more a force of habit than a force of hope. They kill us because we're there, and we kill them for the same reason. Meanwhile, lunatics are blowing themselves up at the markets in order to show-off to Allah.

How does presidential stubbornness make a thing like that better?

Isn't it time for a political surge that ends this war before it gets even worse?

I prefer donuts to the dozen over deaths.

Perhaps with Roadblock Republicans it is the other way around?

Isn't it better to have a sugar-coated donut than a sugar-coated presidential pronouncement prolonging a problematic war?

I think so, but I'm partial to donuts.

Thursday, May 03, 2007

911 Revisited

I remember watching the twin towers fall on 9/11. My first impression was that I was witnessing a demolition, not a collapse.


The experts came on TV and talked about melting I-beams and latent heat and what-not and I accepted the explanation.

However, many people, including an engineer from MIT, call into question the official story of what happened on 9/11.

They've put together a documentary revisiting 911 that raises questions about the official story:

911 Revisited

I don't know enough to say whether my initial impression was correct. I do know I don't trust that which emanates from the lips of this president, but a cover-up of this magnitude requires too much complicity to seem realistic to me.

What do you think?

Democrats lend me your ears

30 Republicans lost their seats in the last national election and 0 Democrats did. That is America speaking loud and clear about the war in Iraq. It is a mandate for change.

Americans didn't give you a majority so you could pretend to oppose the president and then "back down" at the very first road-block.

Washington Post: Democrats Back Down On Iraq Timetable

Giving the president what he wants is the problem.

Perhaps you should reflect that what you compromise is our troops lives.

You should also reflect on the language in the Washington Post story above. President Bush expects to secure an agreement, while Democrats hope to reach a compromise.

ADDENDUM: Pelosi and Reid say that Washington Post story saying Democrats "Backed Down" to Bush's demands is false. Details here

Remember when...

Remember when conservative pundits went nutty because John Kerry suggested that we needed tough police action to fight al Qaeda?

Well, it turns out that:

Police officers worldwide have arrested five times as many suspects linked to al-Qaeda as military operations have captured or killed: in Asia, excluding Iraq and Afghanistan, the proportion rounded up by police is believed to be as high as 70%.

Source: Fighting the global insurgency

John Kerry and Howard Dean have pretty good track records with their public statements. Too bad that doesn't matter a whit in "Not your father's America".

Wednesday, May 02, 2007

Fleeting Wisdom

Governor George W. Bush
June 5th, 1999
Scripps Howard/Seattle Post-Intelligencer

Criticizing President Clinton for not setting a timetable for exiting Kosovo

“I think it’s important for the president to lay out a timetable as to how long they will be involved and when they would be withdrawn.”

Source: Bush demanding a time table

Governor George W. Bush
April 9th, 1999
Houston Chronicle
Also criticizing president Clinton about the war in Kosovo.

"Victory means exit strategy, and it’s important for the president to explain to us what the exit strategy is.”

Source: Bush demanding exit strategy

It seems that president George W. Bush would accuse governor George W. Bush of failing to support the troops in harms way and of being guilty of trying to tie the hands of the commander in chief.

The veto in context

How does one put president Bush's veto of the new Iraq war funding bill into context?

Bill Scher offers this advice:

Monumental snubbing of the public will

I think democrats need to start trotting out words like "sad", "stubborn", "delusional" and "pathetic" to describe the president at this point.

It is criminal that people are dying so he can pretend he's the last gun blazing at the Alamo.

ADDENDUM: Two generals get it

Tuesday, May 01, 2007

Does this apply to us?

I began reading an article on the Winograd report, which analyzed Israel's attack on Lebanon last year. After a couple of paragraphs I began to have deja vu all over again.

...we are not talking about mere failures. We are talking about this country's continued existence being a true miracle. Because a country whose prime minister failed in exercising judgment, whose defense minister failed in doing his job, whose chief of staff made false presentations and contributed decisively to the flaws and failures, whose General Staff suffered from lack of creativity, and whose government voted without understanding what it was voting on – is a country that was abandoned.

This is a country without leadership. This is a country whose army disappointed it. It is a country whose government is pathetic and whose ministers are unworthy of serving in their posts.

Source: Ynet news

Those Israeli editorial writers sure are feisty. I suppose the same tone would be considered radical here, or unprofessional.


Here is a tiny tune, badly sung, which attempts to simplify the situation in Iraq for politicians.

If you don't bring them home...

Wouldn't it be swell if crowds of people sang this song, perhaps holding hands and swaying, to passing politicians?

Perhaps it should be sung for the denizens of the press too?

I think I have no shame.

Foot Quotes

"Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge"

Charles Darwin